A gra Fort is located (270 10’ 47’’N & 780 1’ 22’’ E) on the right bank of the river Yamuna in the city of Agra in Uttar Pradesh. It is one of the most important and robustly built stronghold of the Mughals, embellished with number of richly decorated buildings encompassing the imposing Mughal style of art and architecture. It was constructed by the third Mughal emperor Akbar on the remains of an ancient site known as Badalgarh. Sikandar Lodi (1487-1517) was the first Sultan of Delhi to shift his capital from Delhi to Agra. After Sikandar Lodi who died in 1517, his son Ibrahim Lodi held the fort for 9 years until he was defeated and killed in the battle of Panipat in 1526. Several palaces, wells and a mosque were built in the fort during the Lodi period.
When Babur sent his son Humayun to Agra, he captured the fort and seized a vast treasure, which included the world famous ‘Koh-i-noor’ diamond as well. Babur built a baoli (step-wall) here. Humayun was coronated here in 1530. Nazam, a water-carrier (saqqa), who had saved Humayun from drowning, was crowned here as an emperor for half-a-day. After Humayun’s defeat at Bilgram in 1540, Sher Shah of the Sur dynasty occupied Agra fort and garrisoned it.
Akbar arrived in Agra in 1558. He ordered to renovate the fort with red sandstone. Some 4000 builders daily worked on it and it was completed in 8 years (1565-1573). The fort, semi-circular on plan, is surrounded by a 21.4 m high fortification wall. Double ramparts have been provided here with broad massive circular bastions at regular intervals. There are four gates on its four sides, one of the gates was called “khizri-gate” (the water gate) which opens to the river front, where ghats (quays) were provided .The fort has survived through the onslaught of time, nature and men. The fort spreads over an area of about 94 acres of land. At present, there exist more than two dozens of monuments in the Fort.
Agra fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site is still preserved in fine form. Agra Fort a beautiful and unique blend of Muslim and Hindu architecture. There are many remarkable designs and houses inside the fort. The Fort is a colossal semicircular form with Yamuna River flowing on the east. The course of the river has changed over the years and has drifted further from the fort. The walls are 70 ft high and are surrounded by moat which were again crossed only by drawbridge.
The famed peacock throne was once kept here at the Deewan-i-Am. The Fort has some interesting sites like Jahangir's Palace, Anguri Bagh garden, Diwan-e-Khas and the beautiful Musamman Burj built by Shah Jahan for his wife. The marble palace offers a great view of Taj Mahal. It was here that he spent the last part of his life under house arrest. A visit to Agra Fort would be a great experience for art and history lovers. It offers a good visual treat of the bygone eras; a peek into another world we have heard only in tales from our history books.