Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 30,778 sq mi (79,710 km2). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka he hf is sub capital, Dhanbad the coal capital of India is the most populous city, while Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Bokaro, Dhanbad and Jamshedpur. The major religious centre is Deoghar.
Jharkhand is an odyssey spread over a century which is traced back to the early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, an Indian Hockey captain and Olympian, suggested the idea of a separate state consisting of the southern districts of Bihar. The idea did not become a reality, however, until August 2, 2000, when the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, carving 18 districts out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15 November 2000. On that day it became the 28th state of India.
According to some historians, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappa people. This has led to a great interest in the deciphering of Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained buried. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary to Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary to Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empire. According to legend, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century.
Fairs & Festivals
Jharkhand is unique in the celebration of fairs and festivals due to its rich tribal culture. Various religious fairs and festivals celebrated throughout Jharkhand. Barura Sharif, Belgada Mela Simaria, Bhadli Mela Itkhori, Chatra Mela, Kolhaiya Mela Chatra, Kolhua Mela Hunterganj, Kunda Mela Pratappur, Kundri Mela Chatra, Lawalong Mela, Rabda Sharif, Sangat and Tutilawa Mela Simaria are some of the prominent fairs and festivals of Jharkhand. Important festivals of Hindus celebrated in Jharkhand are Holi, Divwali, Dashhara and Ramnavami. Other festivals like Basant panchami, Chath, Jityya Bhaiya Duj, etc. are also celebrated in the state. Specific festivals of the tribes in Jharkhand are Karma, Manda, Sarhul, Jani shikar etc.
Best Time to Visit
Ranchi has sub-tropical climate i.e, extremely hot in summers and cool in winters. Though Ranchi can be visited anytime during the year, the number of tourists drop in May-June due to the extreme heat in the region.
How to Reach :-
BY AIR - The air network is not very developed in Jharkahnd. There are 4 domestic airports but only have few flights. Birsa Munda Airport is a public domestic airport serving the city of Ranchi, Jharkhand. It is connected by a flight to Mumbai via Delhi.
BY RAIL - Direct trains are there from Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, and Patna. Trains from Mumbai pass through Jamshedpur, which is just 140 km from Ranchi. Bokaro, Ranchi, Dhanbad, Tata, Gomo are main railway station in Jharkhand. The Howrah-Delhi main and Grand Chord lines cut across the northern part of the state. The Howrah-Mumbai lines goes via Jamshedpur in the southern part of state. The Barkakhana-Sonenagar and other links on the western side are gaining in importance.
BY ROAD - Ranchi is situated at the junction of National Highways 23 and 33. Good network of road connects various places of the states with each other and rest of the country. State transport and private buses ply within the state and also to neighboring states like Bihar and West Bengal. The Grand Trunk Road (NH 2 Kolkata Delhi) cuts across the northern part of the state. NH 6 connecting Kolkata with western India enters the south-east corner of the state for a short span. Ranchi, Bokaro, Jamshedpur and Dhanbad are well connected through neighboring State and major cities.